GREAT USE FOR OLD MUSIC ALBUMS COVERS
[ Watch the Video: Roman Skulls Turn Up In London River ]
Brett Smith for redOrbit.com – Your Universe Online
Archaeologists working with London’s Crossrail project have announced the latest discovery brought about by the transit project’s excavations – 20 human skulls. The team of archaeologists said the skulls were probably washed away from burial sites by the Walbrook river, one of London’s ‘lost’ waterways.
“This is an unexpected and fascinating discovery that reveals another piece in the jigsaw of London’s history,” said Jay Carver, a lead archaeologist for Crossrail. “This isn’t the first time that skulls have been found in the bed of the River Walbrook and many early historians suggested these people were killed during the Boudicca rebellion against the Romans.”
“We now think the skulls are possibly from a known Roman burial ground about 50 meters up river from our Liverpool Street station worksite,” he added. “Their location in the Roman layer indicates they were possibly washed down river during the Roman period.”
Diggers also found nearly intact pottery, which was also probably transported by the river. Archaeologists said other, oblong bone fragments would not have been washed as easily down the river.
Before being paved over in the 15th Century, the Walbrook river split London into western and eastern sides. Scientists have said that its muddy walls made for excellent artifact preservation. The newly discovered skulls were found in clusters that indicated they had been caught in a bend in the river.
All of the archaeological samples discovered by the Crossrail project are being analyzed by the Museum of London Archaeology, and researchers there said they have dated the skulls to the 3rd or 4th centuries AD, when Romans buried their citizens outside their settlement as opposed to cremating them.
“What we’re looking at here is how the Romans viewed their dead. You wouldn’t imagine modern burial grounds being allowed to wash out into a river,” Nicholas Elsden from the Museum of London Archaeology, told BBC News.
Don Walker, an osteologist from the museum, said the skulls were most likely buried in different environments, based on their various shades of brown and grey.
“Forensic studies show that when the body disintegrates near a watercourse, the skull travels furthest, either because it floats or it can roll along the base of the river,” Walker said. “They were possibly buried in an area where there wasn’t much land available.”
“At the moment it looks as though they’ve collected together through natural processes,” he added.
Walker said his initial impression was that there was no “foul play” that caused the deaths of these individuals, but further investigations could reveal additional details. He expected that the museum’s work would reveal the sex and age of the individuals and a chemical analysis on the teeth would show where they came from and what food they ate.
The discoveries are the latest associated with the Crossrail project, with archaeologists currently surveying over 40 worksites ahead of the main transit construction. The rail project is expected to result in 37 transit stations that will connect Heathrow Airport to central London and beyond by 2018.
More pictures of cute dogs to cheer up your Monday.
By Miriam Kramer
Published October 15, 2013
Oct. 10, 2013: NASA Astronaut Mike Hopkins took this photo from the International Space Station. “Saw something launch into space today. Not sure what it was but the cloud it left behind was pretty amazing,” the Expedition 37/38 Flight Engineer tweeted.(MIKE HOPKINS (VIA TWITTER AS @ASTROILLINI))
Oct. 11, 2013: Astronaut Luca Parmitano of Italy tweeted this photo of a missile launch seen from the International Space Station.(LUCA PARMITANO (VIA TWITTER AS @ASTRO_LUCA))
The astronaut photos were captured on Oct. 10 by NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins and European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano who took to Twitter under their pen names (@AstroIllini and @astro_luca, respectively) to share the unnatural looking space cloud formation with Earth.
“Saw something launch into space today,” Hopkins wrote. “Not sure what it was but the cloud it left behind was pretty amazing.” At first, Hopkins wasn’t sure what created the odd looking cloud outside the window of the orbiting laboratory, but Parmitano cleared up the confusion with a Twitter post of his own. [Amazing Space Photos by Astronaut Luca Parmitano]
“A missile launch seen from space: an unexpected surprise!” Parmitano wrote in a post on Oct. 11. One of the Italian astronaut’s photos shows a curving contrail left in the missile’s wake and another features a wispy cloud formed in space after the missile disintegrated.
Russia’s Strategic Rocket Forces launched the missile, according to a blog post on RussianForces.org. The Topol/SS-25 missile launched from Kapustin Yar to the Sary Shagan test site in Kazakhstan.
“According to a representative of the Rocket Forces, the test was used to confirm characteristics of the Topol missile, to test the systems of the Sary Shagan test site, and ‘to test new combat payload for intercontinental ballistic missiles,'” RussianForces.org wrote on Oct. 10.
Russia also conducted a similar test from Kapustin Yar to Sary Shagan in June 2012, RussiaForces.org said.
Parmitano and Hopkins are joined by four other spaceflyers on the International Space Station. NASA’s Karen Nyberg and Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin, Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy round out the Expedition 37 crew. Ryazanskiy, Hopkins and Kotov launched to the station at the end of September. Current station commander Yurchikhin, Nyberg and Parmitano are scheduled to fly back to Earth on Nov. 11.
Although NASA is currently closed due to the government shutdown, astronauts on the station are apparently still able to post photos on social media websites.
Twitter is just one of the ways that astronauts are able to communicate with people on the ground. Nyberg actively posts post photos on the website Pinterest and Parmitano blogs about his adventures in spaceflight through ESA. The station astronauts can also video chat with their loved ones on the surface of Earth.
The $100 billion orbiting laboratory is the size of a five-bedroom house with the wingspan of a football field. It is the largest structure ever built in space and has been continually staffed by a rotating crew of astronauts and cosmonauts since 2000.
As usual, more cosplay pictures to enjoy on your Saturday!
I had this published in a magazine article awhile back, thought you might enjoy it.
Death by Transporter
by Michael Bradley
For Star Trek fans, the transporter is the key to most away teams. In space dock you might use the shuttle and certainly if the transporter is blocked by shielding or other devices you would use the shuttle. How many times have we seen the transporter used throughout the series, and the only one smart enough to question this was “Bones”, Doctor McCoy. He complained that breaking a person down into individual atoms and beaming them across space and reassembling them was “unnatural.”
The sad truth is that the transporter is actually a death device that produces a clone. Each person entering is disintegrated into nothing but a computer pattern duplicating their original mass. Those actual particles are not sent through space, which could not happen at warp speed, much less sub-light. The computer projects the image of the person into the destination and assembles atoms to reconstruct them.
Every time Captain Kirk, Spock, or anyone else stepped into the transporter, they died. A perfect clone, which “thinks” it is still the same person, was then created. Even under the best circumstances, repeated death and re-cloning will get some of the pieces wrong. Theoretically, the more times you go through the transporter, the less you will be like the original. There have been episodes where people were merged, mangled, or had the “anti-virus” program remove alien life and microbes from the new clone, leaving behind part of the original.
The official protectors of the Star Trek brand deny this is the way transporters work. They say that it breaks down your molecules then converts them to a light beam, then reassembles them. This cannot be true, given the Star Trek canon. Every trekker knows you cannot beam someone through an active shield; however, lasers, photon torpedoes and phaser banks CAN go through a shield on the way out. So if light, energy and matter can travel out, why not molecules in a light beam?
Further proof that the transporter disintegrates the occupant then creates a clone is found in Star Trek: The Next Generation episode entitled “Second Chances” in which Commander Riker is duplicated twice. One version goes up to the ship, while the other is stranded behind. After that, they diverge in personalities based on their experiences. If in fact, a transporter only uses the original mass of the individual, then two Rikers would both only be half complete, and both would be dead. If it disintegrates and kills the first Riker, then accidentally puts them together twice in different spots, that would explain the plot.
Star Trek has extensive usage of the replicators. Captain Picard says, Earl Grey hot, and voila, there it is. The replicators basically take inert mass and energy and remake it into whatever product is desired. The transporters are simply replicators that project their product, destroying the original, encoding it, then using target mass to create a replica.
If you believe in souls, or even personal identity, this is of great concern. If you understood how a transporter actually works, would you ever step into one? Would you be willing to die each time, knowing a clone of you, who thinks they are you and acts like you, will be created on the other end? Personally, there is no way I would do it. Space is risky enough, and you could get me to serve on a ship. Walk into a death chamber to die and be cloned? I’ll pass, thank you very much.
Miley Cyrus Humor (Warning: Some Jokes Are R Rated)
Ok, hope this Miley collection leaves you smiley, though many will probably just make you groan.